Dec 31, 2018

Submersible Boiler to Silent Sea-Wolves

From the advent of the earliest of the type, submarine design has always pressed against the outer limits of the contemporary technological envelope. Inventors and engineers have, of necessity, incorporated new and untested machinery and equipment into their craft in order to meet their goals of creating effective undersea vessels. The underwater environment, moreover, is unforgiving; errors in operation or failures of equipment have very dangerous and even fatal consequences. Success in submarine design, therefore, has come to those naval architects who have combined innovation and experimentation with substantial direct, prior experience or knowledge.

The obvious potential military advantages of the stealthy and lethal capabilities of successful submarines soon attracted the attention of admiralties around the world. Early designers of practical craft found a relatively ready market for their wares, either through export or license construction by their customers. Designs by the German Wilhelm Bauer were constructed in Germany and Russia, while George Garrett’s boats, built by the Swedish industrialist Thorsten Nordenfeldt in Sweden and Britain, were marketed to Greece, Turkey, and Russia. Beginning in the years around 1900, boats by Maxime Laubeuf in France, the Italian Cesare Laurenti, and above all, John P. Holland in the United States, found ready markets in navies around the world in the years before World War I.

The maturation of submarines as a result of operations during World War I expanded the global demand for the type. Design teams with successful records dominated this worldwide arms market. Firms from Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and the United States prevailed in this trade in submarines. In the German case, since indigenous submarine design and construction had been prohibited by the Versailles Treaty, the design teams established themselves across the border in the Netherlands and contracted out construction to yards in other European countries. A similar situation pertained after World War II, although Italian designs, no longer on the cutting edge, faded from the export market, while the emphasis on nuclear propulsion in the United States led that nation to withdraw from overseas sales to avoid the distribution of sensitive technologies. Its place was taken by substantial export of both vessels and designs by the Soviet Union, the resurgence of the German submarine industry, and the maturing of Swedish design and construction.

Dec 28, 2018


Admiralty: Shorthand terminology for the Royal Navy’s Board of Admiralty, which heads its central administration. Unlike most such boards, it includes both the civilian political appointees and the professional heads of the fleet.

Air Lock: A watertight compartment through which a diver may pass between a submarine and the sea, pausing within it while the air pressure is equalized with the external environment.

Ballast Tank: A tank that may be filled or emptied of water to increase or decrease a boat’s displacement.

Ballast Tank, Saddle: Ballast tank mounted outside the main structure of the hull, named by analogy with saddlebags.

Bridge: The ship’s navigating and control station.

Bulge: Structures built onto a ship’s side beyond the primary hull structure. Initially these were used to enhance protection against damage from a torpedo hit but they came to be employed more to enhance stability by increasing a hull’s internal volume.

Casing: A light non-pressure-resistant structure designed to improve submarine performance and/or enhance personnel access on the surface.

Catapult: A device for launching aircraft into the air.

Conseil Superieur: The French Navy’s professional leadership.

Conning Tower: Navigation station outside the main hull.

Convoy: A group of merchant vessels traveling together under escort.

Depth Charge: An explosive charge detonated at a preset depth.

Diving Planes: Horizontal control surfaces used to move a submarine in a vertical plane.

Drop-Collar: A mechanical arrangement suspending a torpedo that may be release remotely.

Dynamite Gun: A gun using compressed air as propellant for its missile, which had a dynamite explosive charge.

General Board: The professional leadership of the United States Navy until 1948.


Brake Horsepower (bhp): The measure of the power output of internal combustion engines.

Indicated horsepower (ihp): The measure of the power output of reciprocating steam

Shaft Horsepower (shp): The measure of the power output of turbine engines.

Machinery Types

Diesel: Internal combustion engines using oil fuel and compression ignition.

Triple Expansion: Reciprocating steam engines using multiple cylinders to maximize steam usage.

Turbine: Engines that use the passage of steam or hot gases to rotate encased fan blade assemblies to generate power.

Magazine: Stowage space for munitions.

Mine: An underwater explosive charge.

Monitor: A small shallow draft vessel carrying heavy guns, primarily intended for shore bombardment.

Pressure Hull: The main body of a submarine that is reinforced to withstand water pressure.

Radar: Electronic location equipment, initially for search only but rapidly developed to provide gunnery control and missile guidance.

Radome: A protective enclosure for a radar antenna.

Sail: Streamlined superstructure containing conning stations.

Sheer: The shape of the top of a ship’s hull as viewed from the side.

Sonar: Acoustic detection equipment for locating submarines.

Spar Torpedo: A warhead attached to a pole or spar, allowing it to project ahead of the attacking vessel.

Submarine: A vessel that normally operates submerged. Usually also used to describe any vessel that may operate underwater, even for a limited period.

Submersible: A vessel that normally operates on the surface but may be submerged controllably at will.

Superstructure: All a ship’s structure above the hull’s sheer.

Topweight: The component of the ship’s weight that is above its center of gravity.

Torpedo: Self propelled underwater weapon.

Torpedo, Acoustic: A torpedo that that is self-guided toward the sound of a target’s propellers.

Torpedo, Homing: A torpedo that is self-guided to its target by emissions (usually sonic).

Torpedo, Wire-guided: A torpedo guided to its target by an operator on the launching vessel using signals transmitted through a trailing wire.

Torpedo Pistol, Contact: Torpedo detonator that uses contact with its target for initiation.

Torpedo Pistol, Magnetic: Torpedo detonator that used its target’s magnetic field for initiation.

Torpedo Tube: Tube for launching torpedoes, usually by the pressure of introduced compressed air, a ram, or by allowing the torpedo to exit under its own power (swim-out tube).

Trim Tank: Small tank used for fine adjust of a submarine’s depth and inclination.

Variable Pitch Propeller: A propeller whose blades may be twisted to vary their angle according to power needs.

Warship Types

Battlecruiser: A battleship type that trades armor protection for higher speed.

Corvette: A small low-speed escort vessel.

Cruiser, Armored: A cruising warship type used until the first quarter of the 20th century that depended on an armored belt for its main protection.

Cruiser, Heavy: A cruiser armed with 8-inch guns.

Cruiser, Light: A cruiser armed with 6-inch or smaller guns.

Cruiser, Protected: A cruising warship type used until the first quarter of the 20th century that depended on an armored deck for its main protection.

Destroyer: A relatively small, fast, multi-role warship, originally designed to defend against torpedo boats but later also used for surface torpedo attack and antiaircraft and antisubmarine defense.

Dreadnought: A battleship armed primarily with eight or more very large caliber guns.

Escort Carrier: A small aircraft carrier primarily operating antisubmarine aircraft.

Frigate: A more sophisticated development of a corvette.

Pre-Dreadnought: A battleship usually armed with four large caliber guns and a substantial secondary armament.

Q-ship: A commissioned warship disguised as a merchant vessel carrying concealed weapons used to attack submarines induced to surface.

Sloop: A sophisticated antisubmarine and antiaircraft escort vessel.

Torpedo Boat: A small fast vessel, originally for attack with torpedoes but later often used as a fast antisubmarine vessel.

Jun 21, 2018

Missing sub rumored to have brought Nazis to South America discovered

By Jon Lockett, The Sun

April 18, 2018 | 1:08pm

A missing German submarine said to have taken the defeated Nazi leadership to South America has been discovered after being lost at sea for nearly 73 years.

The U-3523 was one of Hitler’s Type XXI submarines – a new and highly advanced design which came too late to stop an allied victory.

It was the first class of U-boats designed to sail submerged for a prolonged period of time and had a range which allowed it to sail non-stop to South America.

The U-3523 was thought to have been sunk by a British B24 Liberator attack on May 6, 1945, but the inability to locate the wreck fuelled rumors that it had escaped.

Now the wreck has been located ten nautical miles north of Skagen – Denmark’s northernmost town – and nine miles west of the position reported by the British bomber.

Denmark’s Sea War Museum, which found the submarine, said there was no evidence that it was escaping with Nazi leaders or loot.

Gert Normann Andersen, the museum’s director, said: “Rumor has it that the submarine had great valuables from Germany because it was heading away from Germany even though the war ended.”

“I think the rumor developed because U-3523 was a very modern, long-distance U-boat and some Nazis tried to escape with valuables in the last days.”

“But the submarine was going to Norway, and not to South America with Nazis and valuables.”

The German Type XXI submarine was so advanced that the US, France, Soviet Union and China would end up copying it.

Declassified documents from US intelligence have fuelled claims that the Nazi leadership, including Adolf Hitler himself, escaped to South America in the final days of the war.

One CIA file dated October 3, 1955, carried allegations from a former SS trooper named Phillip Citroen that Hitler had been hiding in Colombia and later Argentina.

The trooper even had a photo taken in 1954 in the Colombian city of Tunja, allegedly showing him with a man said to be Hitler.

For years, the missing submarine was a locus of conspiracy theories.
The document stated: “According to Citroen, the Germans residing in Tunja followed this alleged Adolf Hitler with an idolatry of the Nazi past, addressing him as ‘der Fuhrer’ and affording him the Nazi salute and storm-trooper adulation.”

Meanwhile a file from the FBI archives, dated September 21, 1945, detailed eyewitness claims that Hitler had arrived in Argentina via a submarine two-and-a-half weeks after the fall of Berlin.

It said: “By pre-arranged plan with six top Argentine officials, pack horses were waiting for the group and by daylight all supplies were loaded on the horses and an all-day trip inland toward the foothills of the southern Andes was started.”

“At dusk the party arrived at the ranch where Hitler and his party, according to (redacted), are now in hiding.”

Several prominent Nazis are also known to have fled to South America, including Adolf Eichmann – a leading architect of the Holocaust, and the notorious Auschwitz doctor Josef Mengele.

However, the new discovery proves that U-3523 never made the trip and sank with all 58 crewmen.

Andersen also has a copy of the last telegram sent by the submarine, dated May 5, 1945, which makes no mention of any precious cargo or high-ranking passengers.

Nazi Germany would sign the first instrument of unconditional surrender just two days later on May 7, 1945.

Scans of the seabed reveal the U-boat now lies in 403 feet of water, making it very difficult to access.
Unusually, the whole fore of the ship lies buried in the sand, while the stern stands 65 feet above the bottom.

Nazi Germany built 118 Type XXI U-boats but – due to poor quality control – only four were fit for combat before World War II ended and just two were deployed, neither sinking any allied ships.

Their design was later copied by Britain, the US, France and the Soviet Union with Soviet models subsequently inspiring Chinese submarines.

Only one original Type XXI U-boat survives, the Wilhelm Bauer (formerly U-2540), which is now part of the German Maritime Museum in Bremerhaven.

Nov 27, 2016

First Picture of China's Secretive New Submarine, The Type 093B

First Picture of China's Secretive New Submarine, The Type 093B

In June 2016, the PLAN released a clear photo of its newest, stealthiest nuclear attack submarine (SSN) being loaded with missiles. China's nuclear submarines are among the most secretive Chinese military platforms- it's a rare event to have even a photo of a forty year old Type 091 Han submarine, or the Type 092 Xia nuclear ballistic missile submarine.